Linus Carl Pauling (/ˈpɔːlɪŋ/; February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. New Scientist called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time, and as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history.
Nuclear warfare strategy is a set of policies that deal with preventing or fighting a nuclear war. The policy of trying to prevent an attack by a nuclear weapon from another country by threatening nuclear retaliation is known as the strategy of nuclear deterrence. The goal in deterrence is to always maintain a second strike capability (the ability of a country to respond to a nuclear attack with one of its own) and potentially to strive for first strike status (the ability to destroy an enemy's nuclear forces before they could retaliate). Fallout exposure – Depending on if further afield individuals shelter in place or evacuate perpendicular to the direction of the wind, and therefore avoid contact with the fallout plume, and stay there for the days and weeks after the nuclear explosion, their exposure to fallout, and therefore their total dose, will vary.
The Nobel Peace Prize 1962 was awarded to Linus Carl Pauling. During the same period and later years, many other organizations of scientists were active in the work of educating people about nuclear weapons and nuclear war; among them I may mention especially the Federation of American Scientists (in the United States)10, the Atomic Scientists’ Association (Great Britain), and the World Federation of Scientific Workers (with membership covering many countries).
Linus Pauling: Take the Bravo Bomb, that we exploded at Bikini, and with similar bombs exploded since then by the USSR and Great Britain. What damage would it do if it were used in a nuclear war? It would smash a city flat over an area 20 miles in diameter. When it is exploded, 2 or 3 miles, or 4 miles above the surface of the Earth, above the center of the city, it would just smash the city flat and kill everybody in this area 20 miles in diameter
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28 1901 – August 19 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist, a pioneer in the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry, and one of the founders of molecular biology.
Linus Pauling: I believe that we have more than the number of weapons needed to kill everybody on Earth. Perhaps as many as 5 times the number of atomic bombs needed to kill everybody on Earth if they were be exploded as ground bursts, rather uniformly distributed over the land surfaces of the Earth, but with a concentration in the regions where there is the greatest number of people living. The USSR may have several times the number of atomic bombs needed to kill everybody on Earth.
Linus Pauling, spoken word. Verve Records Catalog: 8000 series - album index. Verve Records Catalog: 8100 series - album index. Verve Records Catalog: 8200 series - album index. Verve Records Catalog: 8300 series - album index. Verve Records Catalog: 8400 series - album index. Verve Records Catalog: 8500 series - album index. Nuclear testing and fallout. Over 2,000 nuclear tests have been conducted in over a dozen different sites around the world. Red Russia/Soviet Union, blue France, light blue United States, violet Britain, black Israel, yellow China, orange India, brown Pakistan, green North Korea and light green (territories exposed to nuclear bombs).
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. Pauling is widely regarded as the premier chemist of the twentieth century. The other people who have received two Nobel prizes are Marie Curie (physics and chemistry), John Bardeen (both in physics) and Frederick Sanger (both in chemistry).